An animation which simulates infection and replication mechanisms in a retrovirus.
You may pause and watch the animation step by step.
You may use it to:
- Identify the critical phases of the process
- Analyse the possibility for drugs to act upon the process
- Prepare a presentation for the class
Learning object available in:
Terms you need to know:
|Retroviruses are RNA viruses that infect animal cells; the HIV virus belongs to this class of virus|
|Infection begins when viral envelope proteins bind to receptors.|
|The viral membrane fuses with the cell membrane and releases the RNA genome and associated proteins into the cytoplasm.|
|One of the viral proteins is a DNA polymerase called reverse transcriptase.|
|Reverse transcriptase copies the RNA genome into a single-stranded and then a double-stranded DNA.|
|The viral DNA is transported into the nucleus and inserts into the host cell DNA.|
|The integrated proviral DNA directs the synthesis of RNA copies of the viral genome.|
|The transcribed RNA serves both as mRNA to encode viral proteins and as genomic RNA for the next generation of viruses.|
|The pol gene, not shown, encodes the reverse transcriptase and integrase proteins. The gag protein packages the genomic RNA and pol proteins in a viral shell, called a nucleocapsid.|
|The envelope proteins are synthesized in the ER from a spliced viral RNA transcript.|
|After processing in the Golgi, the envelope proteins and the host cell membrane combine with the virus particle.|
|Newly formed virions bud from the cell surface. The cell lyses and liberates hundreds of infectious viruses into the host organism.|
(2) Suggested age group. The learning object may be used by the Teachers with students of any age.